Chapter One? Check.
Chapter Two? Ok, here you go.
In Chapter Two, Pope Francis launches into a beautiful spiritual examination of man’s stewardship over Creation. Beginning with the creation accounts in Genesis, Francis traces man’s responsibility for the world around him, and notes that the rupture we have with the environment stems from the Original Sin, which broke our relationship with God and our world. We are responsible for creation, not in a domineering way, but in a caretaking way (67). God alone dominates creation; we share in his dominion, but since “we are not God,” we are responsible not for ruling over creation, but rather for “tilling and keeping,” for cultivating and protecting (67). Even when the Israelites travel into the Promised Land, God notes that it is His land, and that the Israelites are journeying there (Lev. 25:23; Francis quotes the verse).
This responsibility carries into our relationships with each other. Pope Francis examines the story of Cain and Abel in light of this role of man as caretaker. “Disregard for the duty to cultivate and maintain a proper relationship with my neighbour, for whose care and custody I am responsible, ruins my relationship with my own self, with others, with God and with the earth. When all these relationships are neglected, when justice no longer dwells in the land, the Bible tells us that life itself is endangered” (70). Yet, God does not leave us when others treat us with injustice: “The God who created the universe out of nothing can also intervene in this world and overcome every form of evil. Injustice is not invincible” (74).
One of the key points that Francis drives at in this section is that God is a Creator, for creation must have a Creator. Those who seek to be atheist environmentalists miss that essential component to an authentic ecology. Those noted naturalists, like my favorite, David Attenborough, should note what the pope says in this chapter:
The world came about as the result of a decision, not from chaos or chance, and this exalts it all the more. The creating word expresses a free choice. The universe did not emerge as the result of arbitrary omnipotence, a show of force or a desire for self-assertion. Creation is of the order of love. God’s love is the fundamental moving force in all created things, . . . “the love which moves the sun and the stars.” (77; quote from Dante Alighieri, Paradiso, Canto XXXIII, 145)
The Holy Father also addresses divinizing nature, as pagan religions do (78), and the error of applying evolution to the spiritual world (81). All three of those errors (atheistic ecology, paganism, and spiritual evolution) harm our understanding of nature and view it in an askew way. It is only in having a correct theology and anthropology that we can truly see the wonders of the world God created.
While developing this ecological spirituality, Pope Francis brings up again the unity of creation. Everything in creation, because it comes from God, is worthy of respect. However, Francis notes, there is an order in creation. Even though all of creation is worthy of respect, man has a special dignity, unique among all other creatures. That said, there is not a hierarchy in mankind based on nature. A person is not “better” or “worth more” because of his or her race, creed, gender, financial status, age, or health. We cannot measure each other in such a way and expect to treat the environment correctly. In a truly profound statement, Pope Francis stresses, “It is clearly inconsistent to combat trafficking in endangered species while remaining completely indifferent to human trafficking, unconcerned about the poor, or undertaking to destroy another human being deemed unwanted” (91). We can’t claim to care about poaching and selling exotic animals if we don’t care, or even engage in, selling people through pornography or prostitution, or if we disregard the poor and needy, or if we support abortion and euthanasia for the unwanted baby or sick patient. We must respect creation and each other.
In Jesus we find a man uniquely in touch with the natural world, for He alone is both God and man. What happens when the Creator enters Creation? Miracles, to put it simply. His calming of the sea, His walking on water, the miracles of healing, and of course the Eucharist all point to Christ’s dominion over creation. Pope Francis doesn’t mention this directly, but you can see this connection in John 6. That passage starts with the feeding of the five thousand, showing that Jesus had control over nature. Then Jesus walks on water and calms the storm, showing how He has full control over His physical body and can use nature to do what He wants it to do. Finally, Jesus tells His disciples how they will receive eternal life by eating His flesh and drinking His blood, which He can give to them through a mysterious way. Why do Peter and the Apostles stay with Jesus? Because they know He has control over nature and His Body; if Christ says to eat His flesh and drink His blood, then He’ll find a way that we can do just that.